AFSPC Milestone: Cyberspace named an AF warfighting domain

On 1 December 2005, the USAF announced cyberspace would be an Air Force warfighting domain, and added cyberspace to the Air Force mission statement.

Secretary of the Air Force Michael W. Wynne and Chief of Staff General T. Michael Moseley, in their joint letter, unveiled a rewritten mission statement for the United States Air Force: "The mission of the United States Air Force is to deliver sovereign options for the defense of the United States of America and its global interests--to fly and fight in air, space, and cyberspace."
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Neil Armstrong Memorial

Apollo 13 Astronaut Jim Lovell, left, former NASA Administrator Dan Goldin, Sen. John Glenn, third from left, and NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, right, talk at a private memorial service celebrating the life of Neil Armstrong, Aug. 31, 2012, at the Camargo Club in Cincinnati. Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, died Saturday, Aug. 25. He was 82. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

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A Surprisingly Bright Superbubble

This composite image shows a superbubble in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a small satellite galaxy of the Milky Way located about 160,000 light years from Earth. Many new stars, some of them very massive, are forming in the star cluster NGC 1929, which is embedded in the nebula N44, so named because it is the 44th nebula in a catalog of such objects in the Magellanic Clouds. The massive stars produce intense radiation, expel matter at high speeds, and race through their evolution to explode as supernovas. The winds and supernova shock waves carve out huge cavities called superbubbles in the surrounding gas. X-rays from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue) show hot regions created by these winds and shocks, while infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red) outline where the dust and cooler gas are found. The optical light from the 2.2-m Max-Planck-ESO telescope (yellow) in Chile shows where ultraviolet radiation from hot, young stars is causing gas in the nebula to glow. A long-running problem in high-energy astrophysics has been that some superbubbles in the LMC, including N44, give off a lot more X-rays than expected from models of their structure. These models assume that hot, X-ray emitting gas has been produced by winds from massive stars and the remains of several supernovas. A Chandra study published in 2011 showed that there are two extra sources of N44’s X-ray emission not included in these models: supernova shock waves striking the walls of the cavities, and hot material evaporating from the cavity walls. The Chandra observations also show no evidence for an enhancement of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium in the cavities, thus ruling out this possibility as a third explanation for the bright X-ray emission. Only with long observations making full use of the capabilities of Chandra has it now become possible to distinguish between different sources of the X-rays produced by superbubbles. Image credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/U.Mich./S.Oey, IR: NASA/JPL, Optical: ESO/WFI/2.2-m Caption credit: Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

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AFSPC Milestone: First Wideband Global SATCOM satellite launched

On 11 October 2007, the first Wideband Global SATCOM satellite was launched by an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral AFS, Fla. WGS is DoD's highest capacity communications satellite providing increased bandwidth and high data rate and long haul communications for marines, soldiers, sailors and airmen worldwide. The 3rd Space Operations Squadron at Schriever AFB, Colo., operates the WGS satellites.

The WGS system is a constellation of highly capable military communications satellites that leverage cost-effective methods and technological advances in the communications satellite industry. Each WGS satellite provides service in both the X and Ka frequency bands, with the unprecedented ability to cross-band between the two frequencies onboard the satellite. Each WGS satellite is digitally channelized and transponded. These characteristics provide a quantum leap in communications capacity, connectivity and flexibility for U.S. military forces and international partners while
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